DNases which follow up on explicit positions or groupings on the DNA are called as restriction endonucleases. The arrangements which are perceived by the restriction endonucleases or restriction enzymes are called as acknowledgment successions or limitation locales. These arrangements are palindromic successions. Diverse limitation chemicals present in various microscopic organisms can perceive extraordinary or same limitation destinations. Be that as it may, they will cut at two distinct focuses inside the limitation site. Such limitation chemicals are called as isoschizomers. Curiously no two limitation compounds from a solitary bacterium will cut at a similar limitation site.
Method of activity
The restriction enzyme ties to the acknowledgment site and checks for the methylation (nearness of methyl bunch on the DNA at a particular nucleotide). In the event that there is methylation in the acknowledgment grouping, at that point, it just tumbles off the DNA and doesn’t cut. In the event that just one strand in the DNA particle is methylated in the acknowledgment arrangement and the other strand isn’t methylated, at that point RE (just sort I and type III) will methylate the other strand at the necessary position. The methyl bunch is taken by the RE from S-adenosyl methionine by utilizing adjustment site present in the limitation compounds.
Be that as it may, type II restriction enzyme take the assistance of another compound called methylase, and methylate the DNA. At that point RE clears the DNA. On the off chance that there is no methylation on both the strands of DNA, at that point RE cuts the DNA. It is just by this methylation component that, RE, albeit present in microscopic organisms, doesn’t divide the bacterial DNA however severs the unfamiliar DNA. Be that as it may, there are some limitation chemicals which work precisely in turn around mode. They cut the DNA in the event that it is a methylate.
Now and again restriction enzyme perceive and sever the DNA strand at the acknowledgment site with hilter kilter palindromic arrangement, for instance Bam HI cuts at the grouping GA TCC, yet under outrageous conditions, for example, low ionic quality it will separate in any of the accompanying succession NGA TCC, GPOA TCC, GGNTCC. Such an action of the RE is called star action.
Nomenclature of Restriction Enzymes
As countless limitation catalysts have been found, a uniform terminology framework is received to stay away from disarray. This classification was first proposed by Smith and Nattens in 1973. Each restriction enzyme would have a particular name which would distinguish it remarkably. The initial three letters, in italics, demonstrate the natural wellspring of the proteins, the first letter being the underlying of the variety and the second and third being the initial two letters of the species name. Along these lines restriction enzyme from Escherichia coli are called Eco; Haemophilus influenzae becomes Hin; Diplocococcus pneumoniae Dpn, etc. At that point comes a letter that distinguishes the strain of microorganisms; Eco R for strain R. At long last there is a roman numeral for the specific compound if there are more than one in the strain being referred to; Eco RI for the principal chemical from E. coli R, Eco RII for the second.