WHAT IS SYNTHETIC SEED..?
Synthetic seed can be characterized as a counterfeit exemplification of substantial incipient organisms, shoot bud or totals of the cell of any tissues which can shape a plant in-vitro or in-vivo condition. Artificial seed has likewise been frequently alluded to as synthetic seed.
•Artificial seeds were first presented in 1970’s as a novel simple to the plant seeds.
The creation of Artificial seeds is helpful for plants which don’t deliver feasible seeds. It speaks to a strategy to engender these plants.
Artificial seeds are small sized and these provides further advantages in storage, handling and shipping.
The expression, “EMBLING” is utilized for the plants started from engineered seed.
The utilization of engineered assortments for business development was first recommended in Maize (Hays and Garber, 1919).
In light of THE TECHNIQUES,TWO TYPES OF ARTIFICIAL SEEDS ARE PRODUCED
•DESICCATED SYNTHETIC SEEDS-Desiccated engineered seeds are delivered nacked or polyoxyethylene glycol typified physical undeveloped organisms. This sort of engineered seeds is delivered in parching lenient species plant.
•HYDRATED SYNTHETIC SEEDS-Hydrated engineered seeds are delivered by typifying the physical undeveloped organisms in hydrogels like sodium alginate, potassium alginate, carrageenan, sodium pectate or sodium alginate with gelatine.
NEED FOR ARTIFICIAL PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
➢Development of miniature engendering procedure will guarantee plentiful gracefully of wanted plant species.
➢Development of fake seed creation innovation is right now considered as a successful and effective technique for spread in a few financially significant agronomic and plant crops.
These counterfeit seed would likewise be a channel for new plant lines created through biotechnological advances to be conveyed straightforwardly to green house and field.
➢High volume engendering capability of substantial undeveloped organisms joined with arrangement of manufactured seeds for ease conveyance would open new vistas for clonal spread in a few financially significant yield species.
WHAT ARE SOMATIC EMBRYOS?
are bipolar structures with both apical and basal meristematic districts, which are fit for framing shoot and root individually.
Somatic EMBRYOS versus ZYGOTIC EMBRYOS AND THEIR ADVANTAGES.
➢Somatic undeveloped organisms are fundamentally like zygotic incipient organisms found in seeds and have a large number of their helpful highlights, including the capacity to develop into complete plant.
➢Somatic undeveloped organisms contrast in that they create from physical cells, rather than zygotes and accordingly, possibly can be utilized to produces copies of single genotypes
Substantial undeveloped organisms creates from physical cells (non-sexual) and doesn’t include sexual recombination. This attribute of physical incipient organisms permits clonal engendering as well as explicit and guided changes to be brought into alluring tip top people by embeddings disconnected quality arrangements into substantial cells.
➢If the creation productivity and comfort practically identical to that of a genuine seed are accomplished, physical undeveloped organisms can be possibly utilized as a clonal engendering framework
Essential REQUIREMENT FOR THE PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIAL SEEDS.
➢One pre imperative for the use of engineered seed innovation in miniature engendering is the creation of high caliber, fiery substantial incipient organisms that can deliver plants with frequencies practically identical to normal seeds.
➢Synthetic seed innovation requires the in costly creation of enormous quantities of excellent physical incipient organisms with simultaneous development
Encapsulation and covering frameworks, however significant for conveyance of substantial incipient organisms, are not the restricting variables for the advancement of engineered seeds.
➢The absence of synchrony of substantial incipient organisms is, seemingly, the absolute most significant obstacle to be defeated before progresses prompting wide spread commercialization of engineered seeds can happen.
Technique FOR PRODUCTION OF ARTIFICIALSEEDS
1. Establish physical embryogenesis
2. Mature physical embryogenesis
3. Synchronize and singulate physical undeveloped organisms
4. Mass creation of physical undeveloped organisms
5. Standardization of exemplification Standardization of counterfeit endosperm
6. Mass creation of counterfeit seeds
7. Greenhouse and field planting
UTILIZATION OF ARTIFICIAL SEEDS
The artificial seeds can be used for specific purposes, notably multiplication of non-seed producing plants, ornamental hybrids or the propagation of polyploidy plants with elite traits.
It can be employed in the propagation of male or female sterile plants for hybrid seed production.
Cryo-preserved artificial seeds may also be used for germplasm preservation particularly in recalcitrant species (such as mango, cocoa and coconut),as this seed will not undergo desiccation.
Transgenic plants, which require separate growth facilities to maintain original genotypes may also be preserved using somatic embryos.
Somatic embryogenesis is a potential tool in the genetic engineering of the plants.
Plants that are generated by somatic embryos from single transgenic cell, the progeny will not be chimeric.
Multiplication of elite plants selected in plant breeding programs via somatic embryos avoids the genetic recombination, and therefore does not warrant continued selection inherent in conventional plant breeding, saving a nsiderable amount of time and other resources.
Artificial seeds produced in tissue culture are free of pathogens. Thus, another advantage is the transport of pathogen-free propagules across the international borders avoiding bulk transportation of plants, quarantine and spread of diseases.
POTENTIAL USES OF ARTIFICIALSEEDS
❖Reduced costs of transplants.
❖Direct greenhouse and field delivery of:- -elite, select genotypes ,Hand-pollinated hybrids, genetically engineered plants,sterile and unstable genotypes
v Large-scale monocultures.
❖Carriers for adjuvants such as microor ganisms, plant growth regulators, pesticides, fungicides, nutrients and antibiotics.
❖Protection of meiotically-unstable, elite genotypes.
❖Can be conceivably handled as seed using conventional planting equipment.
❖Comparative aid for zygotic embryogeny.
❖Production of large numbers of identical embryos.
❖Determination of role of endosperm in embryo development and germination.
❖Study of seed coat formation.
❖Study of somoclonal variation.
APPLICABILITY AND FEASIBILITY OF ARTIFICIAL SEED PRODUCTION TECHNOLOGY
➢In order to be useful, synthetic seed must either reduce production costs or increase crop value.
➢The relative benefits gained, when weighed against development costs, will determine whether its use is justified for a given crop species.
➢For e.g. Synthetic seed of seedless watermelon would actually cost less than conventional seed, providing a benefit at the outset of crop production.